Bajra And Breeding

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Re: Bajra And Breeding

Post by Siddhant on Mon Oct 05, 2015 8:56 am

Physicist Flux wrote:Is Bajra monocot or dicot?
It is a monocot plant.
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Re: Bajra And Breeding

Post by Physicist Flux on Mon Oct 05, 2015 8:51 am

Is Bajra monocot or dicot?
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Bajra And Breeding

Post by Haren on Fri Sep 18, 2015 9:34 pm

Bajra

   
Introduction

Bajra is an indigenous plant of Africa. This forms the staple diet for poor people. Its stalks are used as fodder for cattle and for thatching purposes. Bajra is a crop of dry regions of the country. It occupies 6.8 per cent of the total area under foodgrains and 8.3 per cent of the cereals in the country.

History

Chinese legends attribute the domestication of millet to Shennong, the legendary Emperor of ChinaSpecialized archaeologists called palaeoethnobotanists, relying on data such as the relative abundance of charred grains found in archaeological sites, hypothesize that the cultivation of millets was of greater prevalence in prehistory than rice, especially in northern China and Korea. Millets also formed important parts of the prehistoric diet in Indian, Chinese Neolithic and Korean Mumun societies. Broomcorn (Panicum miliaceum) and foxtail millet were important crops beginning in the Early Neolithic of China. For example, some of the earliest evidence of millet cultivation in China was found at Cishan (north). Cishan dates for common millet husk phytoliths and biomolecular components have been identified around 8300–6700 BC in storage pits along with remains of pit-houses, pottery, and stone tools related to millet cultivation.Evidence at Cishan for foxtail millet dates back to around 6500 BC. A 4,000-year-old well-preserved bowl containing well-preserved noodles made from foxtail millet and broomcorn millet was found at the Lajia archaeological site in China.
Palaeoethnobotanists have found evidence of the cultivation of millet in the Korean Peninsula dating to the Middle Jeulmun pottery period (around 3500–2000 BC). Millet continued to be an important element in the intensive, multicropping agriculture of the Mumun pottery period (about 1500–300 BC) in Korea.[9] Millets and their wild ancestors, such as barnyard grass and panic grass, were also cultivated in Japan during the Jōmon period some time after 4000 BC.

Millet made its way from China to the Black Sea region of Europe by 5000 BC. The cultivation of common millet as the earliest dry crop in East Asia has been attributed to its resistance to drought,and this has been suggested to have aided its spread.

Condition of Growth

Bajra is a crop of warm and dry climatic conditions. The ideal temperature for its growth is between 25°-31°C (10-20°C at the time of sowing). The crop requires 40-50 cm of annual rainfall. Light rainfall followed by bright sunshine favours the quick growth of the crop. Heavy rain exceeding 100 cm is harmful for the crop. Bajra may be grown on poor light sandy, shallow black and red upland gravelly soils. The crop does not require irrigation. Bajra is a Kharif crop, sown between May and September and harvested between October and March. It is grown either as a pure or mixed crop with cotton, jowar or ragi.

Bajra Growing States in India and Best Season

Best part of the crop of pearl millet or bajra is that it grows in such climatic conditions, which doesn’t require any precise limits. It can also grow on soils, which are not highly fertile. High temperature and low rainfall regions are rightly suited for its growth. Where the annual rainfall is about 70-80 cms, this plant is possible to be grown. Since it is a drought tolerant crop, it can grow in dry farming situations. Temperature between 20 and 30 deg C is good for its growth. Light rainfall, followed by bright sunlight helps in the growth of bajra plants and therefore post monsoon season is the best time for its harvesting and development. It is therefore included under the category of kharif crops, as it grows well in monsoon seasons in most parts of India and is perfect to be harvested in winters. So, in India, the best season for its growth is from May till September, while it is harvested during October and November. It can be grown alone or as a mixed crop with cotton, ragi and jowar.


Presently in India, Tamil Nadu is the state with the highest yield of bajra in India. Other states with good yield are Uttar Pradesh, Gujarat and Haryana. Rajasthan in India has the largest area under bajra cultivation. So, the majority of the produce is from Haryana, Gujarat, Uttar Pradesh and Rajasthan in the country of India.

Bajra in Diet

Now Bajra are recommended by many health professionals, Dieticians and Nutritionist because of its various health benefits. It is also not very expensive millet which can reduce its consumption. People are becoming more and more conscious about the fact of bajra having various good effects on the body.
Dieticians and Nutritionist are trying their best to promote this particular millet and increase its consumption by educating its benefits among all groups of people. Awareness among the people helps to create a positive attitude towards this millet. It is also called as pearl millet. It is not expensive like pearl but it’s definitely has pearl like quality which is beneficial to the body. 100 grams of Bajra has the following nutritional values: energy 360 calories, moisture 12g,protein 12g, fat 5g, mineral 2g, fiber 1 g, carbohydrate 67g, Calcium 42mg, phosphorus 242mg, and iron 8mg.

Plant Breeding Practices in Bajara (Pearl Millet)

Bajara (Pennisetum americanum) (L)( 2n=14) is stable food in semiarid tropics. It is adapted for drought and poor soil fertility. In world the Bajara crop ranks sixth in importance followed by wheat, rice, maize, barley and jawar. India and Africa produce 92 % of world population. Bajara originated in Africa from where it was imported into India in the early days. The states growing bajara in large scale are Rajasthan, Gujarat, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Haryana and Punjab.

Origin:

Africa is considered to be centre of origin of bajara. The genetic name pennisutum is derived two Latin words Penna meaning feather and seta meaning bristles. The Pennisetum consist of six sub species as
1) P. ramosum (2n=10)
2) P. americanum (2n=14)
3) P. parpureaum (2n=28)
4) P. macsaicum (2n=16,32)
5) P.orientate (2n=18,36,54)
6) P.scuamalatum (2n=54)

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