Jwar And Yield

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Re: Jwar And Yield

Post by Siddhant on Mon Oct 05, 2015 9:00 am

Physicist Flux wrote:
Siddhant wrote:
Physicist Flux wrote:Which type of species of Jowar is accepted in india?

The Jowar of grass family and of Sorghum Genus is accepted in India and in most countries.

Sorry it is wrong the right answer is Sorghum nitidum.

I could only find the genus and the family. Could not find the species Razz
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Re: Jwar And Yield

Post by Physicist Flux on Mon Oct 05, 2015 8:52 am

Siddhant wrote:
Physicist Flux wrote:Which type of species of Jowar is accepted in india?

The Jowar of grass family and of Sorghum Genus is accepted in India and in most countries.

Sorry it is wrong the right answer is Sorghum nitidum.
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Re: Jwar And Yield

Post by Siddhant on Mon Oct 05, 2015 8:51 am

Physicist Flux wrote:Which type of species of Jowar is accepted in india?

The Jowar of grass family and of Sorghum Genus is accepted in India and in most countries.
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Re: Jwar And Yield

Post by Physicist Flux on Mon Oct 05, 2015 8:49 am

Which type of species of Jowar is accepted in india?
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Jwar And Yield

Post by Haren on Fri Sep 18, 2015 9:49 pm

Jwar              





INTRODUCTION

The cereal plant of jowar came up in historic times in the present day Ethiopia and east central Africa. It was probably in the first millennium that jowar plants were brought from African countries into India. Jowar or sorghum belongs to the Graminae family and grows to a height of about 4 mts. Seeds are rounded and pointed at the base, the color being brownish, yellow, pink or white.

Origin

Making of sorghum molasses in rural Tennessee (1933).
The last wild relatives of commercial sorghum are currently confined to Africa south of the Sahara — although Zohary and Hopf add "perhaps" Yemen and Sudan — indicating its domestication took place there. However, note Zohary and Hopf, "the archaeological exploration of sub-Saharan Africa is yet in its early stages, and we still lack critical information for determining where and when sorghum could have been taken into cultivation."Although rich finds of S. bicolor have been recovered from Qasr Ibrim in Egyptian Nubia, the wild examples have been dated to circa 800–600 BCE, and the domesticated ones no earlier than CE 100. The earliest archeological evidence comes from sites dated to the second millennium BC in India and Pakistan — where S. bicolor is not native. These incongruous finds have been interpreted, according again to Zohary and Hopf, as indicating: (i) an even earlier domestication in Africa, and (ii) an early migration of domestic sorghum, from East Africa into the Indian subcontinent. This interpretation got further support because several other African grain crops, namely: pearl millet Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br., cow pea Vigna unguiculata (L.) Walp., and hyacinth bean Lablab purpureus (L.) Sweet show similar patterns. Their wild progenitors are restricted to Africa.
Most cultivated varieties of sorghum can be traced back to Africa, where they grow on savanna lands. During the Muslim Agricultural Revolution, sorghum was planted extensively in parts of the Middle East, North Africa and Europe. The name "sorghum" comes from Italian "sorgo", in turn from Latin "Syricum (granum)" meaning "grain of Syria".
Despite the antiquity of sorghum, it arrived late to the Near East. It was unknown in the Mediterranean area into Roman times. Tenth century records indicate it was widely grown in Iraq, and became the principal food of Kirman in Persia. In addition to the eastern parts of the Muslim world, the crop was also grown in Egypt and later in Islamic Spain. From Islamic Spain, it was introduced to Christian Spain and then France (by the 12th century). In the Muslim world, sorghum was grown usually in areas where the soil was poor or the weather too hot and dry to grow other crops.
Sorghum is well adapted to growth in hot, arid or semiarid areas. The many subspecies are divided into four groups — grain sorghums (such as milo), grass sorghums (for pasture and hay), sweet sorghums (formerly called "Guinea corn", used to produce sorghum syrups), and broom corn (for brooms and brushes). The name "sweet sorghum" is used to identify varieties of S. bicolor that are sweet and juicy.

Jowar Production in India

In India, jowar plant is grown in areas with less than 100 cm rainfall and temperature ranging from 26 deg to 33 deg C. After wheat, the sorghum or jowar is the grain with the highest cultivable land in the country. It is grown as a Rabi crop and in some areas as a kharif crop, from the months of October to February. For cultivation of jowar, the soil requirement in India is usually regur soil, with clayey and alluvium properties. Areas where the consumption of jowar is high, they are grown in many of the agricultural lands. During the growing season, it requires rainfall, while the maturity of the plants is seen mostly during the north easterly winds and temperature is somewhat higher in winter.

Yield

Trends of area and yields of jowar from 1960-61 to 2003-04 are shown in Table 24.9. India produced 7.3 million tonnes of jowar from 9.5 million hectares of land with an average yield of 772 kg/hectare in 2003-04. Table 24 10 shows the distribution of jowar in India.

In the Maharashtra plateau region, jowar is the staple food of the people and two crops in a year are raised here. First is sown just before the onset of the monsoon and the second is sown after the retreat of the monsoon.
The state suffers from low yield of only 7.4 quintals/hectare against the national average of 7.7 quintals/hectare. Production can be increased by increasing the yields. Madhya Pradesh is the third largest producer but lags far behind Maharashtra in production contributing only 7.87 per cent of the total production of India.

Jowar in Diet


Millets, like sorghum, are predominantly starchy. The protein content is comparable to that of wheat and maize. Pearl and little millet are higher in fat, while finger millet contains the lowest fat. Barnyard millet has the lowest carbohydrate content and energy value. Millets are also relatively rich in iron and phosphorus. The bran layers of millets are good sources of B-complex vitamins. However, millets also feature high fiber content and poor digestibility of nutrients, which severely limit their value in nutrition and influence their consumer acceptability. Finger millet has the highest calcium content among all the foodgrains, but it is not highly assimilable.The protein content in millet is very close to that of wheat; both provide about 11% protein by weight, on a dry matter basis.

Millets are rich in B vitamins (especially niacin, B6 and folic acid), calcium, iron, potassium, magnesium, and zinc. Millets contain no gluten, so they are not suitable for raised bread. When combined with wheat (or xanthan gum for those who have celiac disease) they can be used for raised bread. Alone, they are suited for flatbread.

As none of the millets are closely related to wheat, they are appropriate foods for those with celiac disease or other forms of allergies/intolerance of wheat. However, millets are also a mild thyroid peroxidase inhibitor and probably should not be consumed in great quantities by those with thyroid disease

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